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To Calvin, who had written his summary of Christian doctrine Institutio Christianae Religionis Institutes of the Christian Religion , Servetus' latest book was an attack on historical Nicene Christian doctrine and a misinterpretation of the biblical canon. Calvin sent a copy of his own book as his reply.

Servetus promptly returned it, thoroughly annotated with critical observations. Calvin wrote to Servetus, "I neither hate you nor despise you; nor do I wish to persecute you; but I would be as hard as iron when I behold you insulting sound doctrine with so great audacity. Calvin revealed these frustrations with Servetus when writing to his friend William Farel on 13 February On 16 February , Michael Servetus while in Vienne , France, was denounced as a heretic by Guillaume de Trie, a rich merchant who had taken refuge in Geneva , and who was a good friend of Calvin, [24] in a letter sent to a cousin, Antoine Arneys, who was living in Lyon.

On behalf of the French inquisitor Matthieu Ory , Michael Servetus and Balthasard Arnollet, the printer of Christianismi Restitutio , were questioned, but they denied all charges and were released for lack of evidence. Ory asked Arneys to write back to De Trie, demanding proof.

He escaped from prison three days later. On 17 June, he was convicted of heresy, "thanks to the 17 letters sent by John Calvin , preacher in Geneva" [25] and sentenced to be burned with his books. In his absence, he and his books were burned in effigy blank paper for the books. Meaning to flee to Italy, Servetus inexplicably stopped in Geneva, where Calvin and his Reformers had denounced him. On 13 August, he attended a sermon by Calvin at Geneva. He was arrested after the service [26] and again imprisoned.

All his property was confiscated. Servetus claimed during this judgment he was arrested at an inn at Geneva. French Inquisitors asked that Servetus be extradited to them for execution. Calvin wanted to show himself as firm in defense of Christian orthodoxy as his usual opponents. Among the possible reasons which prevented Calvin from appearing personally against Servetus there was one which must have seemed of itself sufficient. The laws regulating criminal actions in Geneva required that in certain grave cases the complainant himself should be incarcerated pending the trial.

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Calvin's delicate health and his great and constant usefulness in the administration of the state rendered a prolonged absence from the public life of Geneva impracticable. Nevertheless, Calvin is to be regarded as the author of the prosecution. Nicholas de la Fontaine was a refugee in Geneva and entered the service of Calvin, by whom he was employed as secretary.

At his trial, Servetus was condemned on two counts, for spreading and preaching Nontrinitarianism , specifically, Modalistic Monarchianism , or Sabellianism , and anti- paedobaptism anti-infant baptism. Another question was "whether he did not know that his doctrine was pernicious, considering that he favours Jews and Turks , by making excuses for them, and if he has not studied the Koran in order to disprove and controvert the doctrine and religion that the Christian churches hold, together with other profane books, from which people ought to abstain in matters of religion, according to the doctrine of St.

Calvin believed Servetus deserved death on account of what he termed as his "execrable blasphemies". Calvin wrote:.

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My friend Nicolas summoned him on a capital charge, offering himself as a security according to the lex talionis. On the following day he adduced against him forty written charges. He at first sought to evade them. Accordingly we were summoned. He impudently reviled me, just as if he regarded me as obnoxious to him. I answered him as he deserved I hope that sentence of death will at least be passed on him; but I desired that the severity of the punishment be mitigated. They universally favoured his condemnation and suppression of his doctrine, but without saying how that should be accomplished.

The party called the " Libertines ", who were generally opposed to anything and everything John Calvin supported, were in this case strongly in favour of the execution of Servetus at the stake while Calvin urged that he be beheaded instead. In fact, the council that condemned Servetus was presided over by Ami Perrin a Libertine who ultimately on 24 October sentenced Servetus to death by burning for denying the Trinity and infant baptism.

Sebastian Castellio and countless others denounced this execution and became harsh critics of Calvin because of the whole affair. Some other anti-trinitarian thinkers began to be more cautious in expressing their views: Martin Cellarius , Lelio Sozzini and others either ceased writing or wrote only in private.


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The fact that Servetus was dead meant that his writings could be distributed more widely, though others such as Giorgio Biandrata developed them in their own names. The writings of Servetus influenced the beginnings of the Unitarian movement in Poland and Transylvania. In his first two books De trinitatis erroribus , and Dialogues on the Trinity plus the supplementary De Iustitia Regni Christi Servetus rejected the classical conception of the Trinity , stating that it was not based on the Bible.

He argued that it arose from teachings of Greek philosophers , and he advocated a return to the simplicity of the Gospels and the teachings of the early Church Fathers that he believed predated the development of Nicene trinitarianism. Servetus hoped that the dismissal of the trinitarian dogma would make Christianity more appealing to believers in Judaism and Islam , which had preserved the unity of God in their teachings.

According to Servetus, trinitarians had turned Christianity into a form of "tritheism", or belief in three gods. Servetus affirmed that the divine Logos , the manifestation of God and not a separate divine Person, was incarnated in a human being, Jesus, when God's spirit came into the womb of the Virgin Mary.

Only from the moment of conception was the Son actually generated. Therefore, although the Logos from which He was formed was eternal, the Son was not Himself eternal. For this reason, Servetus always rejected calling Christ the " eternal Son of God " but rather called him "the Son of the eternal God. In 'John' he reveals that he created by means of the Word, or Logos. Finally, also in 'John', he shows that this Logos became flesh and 'dwelt among us'. Creation took place by the spoken word, for God said "Let there be In his "Treatise Concerning the Divine Trinity" Servetus taught that the Logos was the reflection of Christ, and "That reflection of Christ was 'the Word with God" that consisted of God Himself, shining brightly in heaven, "and it was God Himself" [42] and that "the Word was the very essence of God or the manifestation of God's essence, and there was in God no other substance or hypostasis than His Word, in a bright cloud where God then seemed to subsist.

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And in that very spot the face and personality of Christ shone bright. Unitarian scholar Earl Morse Wilbur states, "Servetus' Errors of the Trinity is hardly heretical in intent, rather is suffused with passionate earnestness, warm piety, an ardent reverence for Scripture, and a love for Christ so mystical and overpowering that [he] can hardly find words to express it Servetus asserted that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit were dispositions of God, and not separate and distinct beings.

Servetus states his view clearly in the preamble to Restoration of Christianity : "There is nothing greater, reader, than to recognize that God has been manifested as substance, and that His divine nature has been truly communicated. We shall clearly apprehend the manifestation of God through the Word and his communication through the Spirit, both of them substantially in Christ alone.

This theology, though original in some respects, has often been compared to Adoptionism , Arianism , and Sabellianism , all of which Trinitarians rejected in favour of the belief that God exists eternally in three distinct persons. Nevertheless, Servetus rejected these theologies in his books: Adoptionism, because it denied Jesus's divinity; [45] Arianism, because it multiplied the hypostases and established a rank; [46] and Sabellianism, because it seemingly confused the Father with the Son, though Servetus himself does appear to have denied or diminished the distinctions between the Persons of the Godhead, rejecting the Trinitarian understanding of One God in Three Persons.

The incomprehensible God is known through Christ, by faith, rather than by philosophical speculations. He manifests God to us, being the expression of His very being, and through him alone, God can be known. The scriptures reveal Him to those who have faith; and thus we come to know the Holy Spirit as the Divine impulse within us. Under severe pressure from Catholics and Protestants alike, Servetus clarified this explanation in his second book, Dialogues , to show the Logos coterminous with Christ.

He was nevertheless accused of heresy because of his insistence on denying the dogma of the Trinity and the distinctions between the three divine Persons in one God. Servetus also had very unorthodox views on the end times.

He believed that he was the Michael referenced in both Daniel and Revelation who would fight the Antichrist. Furthermore, he believed that all this would take place in his lifetime. This possibly explains his decision to visit Calvin in Geneva. Servetus could have thought that he was somehow bringing about the beginnings of the end times by facing those who argued and fought against him.